Overview, Basic Hand Motion, Chromatic Shifting

What is vibrato?

Vibrato is a slight, even fluctuation in pitch. It’s created by rolling the left-hand fingers over the notes. 

Why learn vibrato?

Vibrato gives longer notes a rich, singing quality. It’s great on slower tunes like waltzes, not as useful on fast things like jigs, reels and breakdowns.

Who should learn vibrato?

Vibrato can be challenging to learn, so if you’re a beginner, I recommend holding off on the full course. Wait until you’ve learned all the basic finger positions (including low first, fourth and raised third fingerings). However, you can start doing some of the basic hand motions now. That way, when you learn vibrato down the line, your hand will have a head start.

The Vibrato Journey

I’ve made a six-lesson series to help you learn this challenging skill. On each step I’ll be coaching you through the physical, practical and emotional challenges that arise.

In this lesson you’ll get the basic gist of how to learn and practice vibrato.Then we’ll get started with some exercises to train your hand. You’ll also learn a pre-cursor to vibrato: Chromatic Shifting.

Think of learning vibrato as a journey. Instead of seeking instant gratification, learn to enjoy the ride.

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Preparation for Vibrato

I suggest learning and practicing the chromatic scale and left-hand sliding. If you’re very comfortable with these, it will be easier to learn vibrato. Here are lessons to take or review:


Overview of the Vibrato series

Here’s the learning journey we’ll take. Though it seems like a linear progression, I encourage you to constantly return to simpler, more fundamental exercises. For example, if you’re in lesson 5, I recommend you still practice the basic hand motion without playing.

In each lesson, I’ll give you a series of exercises that will slowly train your hands and ears.

  • Vibrato 1 (this lesson): Overview, Basic Hand Motion, Chromatic Shifting
  • Vibrato 2Micro-sliding into vibrato
    • Though sliding is different than vibrato, it helps you prepare for it.
    • “Micro-sliding” is sliding very small distances in a rhythmic pattern.
  • Vibrato 3: Slow vibrato pulsing
    • We’ll focus on the actual vibrato motion in this lesson: Rolling not sliding
    • We’ll start with the first and second fingers (because it’s easier 😀)
  • Vibrato 4: Applying vibrato to 1st & 2nd fingers in tunes
  • Vibrato 5: Vibrato on third and fourth fingers
  • Vibrato 6: Apply vibrato to 3rd & 4th fingers in tunes

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Learning chunks 

I’ve made some “Learning Chunks” to help you learn more easily. These focused exercises contain sheet music, tabs and mp3 snippets to guide you on your Vibrato journey. 

Vibrato 1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Note: The dots indicate Staccato (stopping the bow). You can decide how pronounced you want to make this. The basic idea is to discretely move the finger from one position to the other. Next, you’ll practice Sliding, which is a continuous motion.

Vibrato 1.2

Variation: alternate between exercise 1.1 and 1.2 (between a discrete shift and a slide) using the same track. I call this a Practice Loop. Generally speaking, practice loops are a great way to practice anything.

Vibrato 1.4

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Vibrato 1.5

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Vibrato 1.6

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Vibrato 1.7

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Vibrato 1.8

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Vibrato 1.9

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Vibrato 1.10

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Vibrato 1.11

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Vibrato 1.12

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Vibrato 1.13

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Vibrato 1.14

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Vibrato 1.15

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Vibrato 1.16

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Vibrato 1.17

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Vibrato 1.18

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Vibrato 1.19

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Vibrato 1.20

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Vibrato 1.21

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Vibrato 1.22

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Vibrato 1.23

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Vibrato 1.24

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That’s an overwhelming number of exercises!

Sure is. But remember: quality of practice over quantity. I suggest staying with the D2 exercises for awhile, until you can play the in a relaxed manner with joy. 😀


The basic motion: practice without playing

I recommend you practice the basic motion without making any sound. You don’t even need your fiddle for some of these practices. Here’s what I go over in the video lesson:

  • Waving to yourself
    • Imagine you’re the Queen of England waving to people from a limousine.
  • Egg shaker
    • This is similar to waving to yourself.
  • Rolling in guitar position, not holding fiddle
    • Kind of like “air guitar”.
    • Train the wrist to relax into this motion.
    • Do this anywhere, any time of day!
  • Rolling in guitar position, holding fiddle
    • Roll the finger from the tip, back to the pad.
    • Slowly practice this motion every day.
    • Alternate between holding fiddle and not holding fiddle
    • Shake out the hand.
  • Rolling in Violin position, not holding fiddle
    • Notice that the motion is more restricted.
    • The Queen’s Wave 👑
  • Rolling in Violin position, holding fiddle
    • Separate the hand from the neck.
    • Alternate between holding fiddle and not holding fiddle
    • The Knuckle Twist: Rotate knuckles to pegs.
  • Continue to interleave the vibrato practice throughout a session. In fact, you can interleave vibrato practice throughout your entire day if you “Practice without playing.”

Chromatic Shifting

In the exercises above, you’ll practice shifting fingers a half step in a rhythmic pattern. For example, on the D string, you’ll practice shifting fro D2 to DL2. This is a small step towards moving your hand in the vibrato motion.

Take beaks from this to “practice without playing” (see notes above). Or just do something totally different like a tune. Then return to chromatic shifting.


Essential Fiddlosophy for learning vibrato

This is probably the most important part of the whole lesson.

Take the journey. For most folks, learning vibrato takes time. Just prepare for this mentally. And enjoy the ride. Lots of other things will improve as you work through these lessons, like your form, tone, tuning, chromatic scales and sliding.

The whole process will be less frustrating and more interesting with this attitude shift. Plus, it will carry over to everything else you learn and practice.

Consistent practice. More than ever, you’ll need to play every day. But that’s a good thing right? Your hands need time to slowly learn new skills…even when the brain after the brain gets bored. Just commit to working on vibrato for two minutes a day. See The Two-Minute Rule

Interleaving. Simply put, alternate between practicing vibrato and other things within a single session. Studies show that the brain learns better when you repeatedly move between new skills. This is also a form of kindness to yourself. Before you get too frustrated, just switch to something else. Then switch back to vibrato later in the session. Learn more here: Mix Up Your Music Practice With Interleaving

Enjoy the physical sensation of playing. This is an amazing way to make your practice fun and productive. We’ll start with some hand movements. See if you can be fully aware of these motions and take some pleasure in them. This will help you to relax. This powerful practice can transform the way you learn and play because it applies to all physical motion.

Keep returning to simpler steps. In each lesson we’ll layer on a new challenge. This doesn’t mean that you’re done with the earlier steps. In fact, even if you’re doing just fine with each new lesson, I still recommend you return to earlier steps and practice those exercises.


Full sheet music

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Are you ready to begin your fiddle journey? I’ll send you some free lessons tailored to your current skill level.

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Practice Toolkit

Here is a quick way for you to access the essential practice tools you need. Under each tab you'll find play-along tracks, tabs and condensed teachings to help you as you practice. This is an evolving idea, so let me know in a comment below if it could be better.

Last lesson completed:


Total course progress

Total modules complete:

 


All completed lessons

Here's a listing of all core lessons you've completed in the main course (modules 1.1 to 2.9).

Module 1.1


Module 1.2


Module 1.3


Module 1.4


Module 1.5


Module 1.6


Module 1.7


Module 1.8


Module 1.9


Module 1.10


Module 2.1


Module 2.2


Module 2.3


Module 2.4


Module 2.5


Module 2.6


Module 2.7


Module 2.8


Module 2.9

Here are drones for the most common fiddle keys. A D drone can be used to practice tunes in D major or D minor (Dorian or Aeolian).

D drone


A drone

G drone

E drone


For drones in different keys as well as different textures and beats, go to: Drone Central.

Learn more about how to play in tune with drones here: Drone tuning the notes on the D string.

Here's a newer version of the Notefinder which is based on sheet music. If you're interested in learning to read, this will be an invaluable reference. I'll be posting lessons on this in 2020.

Note: the brackets indicate notes that are the same pitch but spelled differently. For example, AH3 (D#) sounds the same as AL4 (Eb). Without going into too much teory detail here, this will be determined by the key of the tune or piece you are playing.


Notefinder table

Here's he original table version of the Notefinder. Sometimes people learn in different ways...


Sawmill tuning Notefinder

This is used to find notes in Sawmill tuning (when the G string is tuned up to A and the D string is tuned up to E). If you're a beginner...best to ignore this! Learn more about sawmill tuning in the Appalachian Fiddle course.

G0-1-2-3-D0-1-2-3-A0-1-2-3-E0-1-2-3


Here are some common scales used in fiddle tunes. Each runs through a series of variations: two bows legato, two bows staccato, four bows, tucka (4 shorts, two longs), hoedown (1 long, two shorts), throwaway bow, triplets, tremolo.

D Major

G Major, starting on D3

A Major

D Dorian

A Dorian


Practice a tune with its scale (Kerry Polka is in G major, so practice a G major scale). Practice scales before, during and after practicing tunes.

For more scale play-along tracks, go to Scale Central.

Rhythms

Tucka 

Short-short-short-short-long-long. Practice on D string:

Practice more: Fingering with Bowing Exercises


Hoedown 

Long-short-short. Practice on D string:


Triplets 

1-2-3 notes per step. Practice D0-0-0-A0-0-0 with plucking:

Practice more: String Crossing Exercises


Swing 

Long-short.  Practice G0-0-2-2-D0-0-3-3-3-3-0-0 with the 'swing double' rhythm:


Slur pattern

Slur two

Here we play two notes per bow. Practice D0-1-1-0 with slur two:

Practice more: Slur Two Exercises


Slur three

Here we play three notes per bow. Practice D0-1-2-2-1-0 with slur three:

Practice more: Slur Three Exercises


Slur four

Here we play four notes per bow. Practice with D0-1-2-3, first time downbow, then upbow:

Practice more: Slur Four Exercises


Slur two-separate two 

This forms a hoedown pattern (long-short-short). Practice it with D0-1-1-1:

Practice more: Slur Two-Separate Two Exercises

30-minute Tune Routine

  • Tone and scale warmup: 5 minutes
  • Interval warm-ups: 5 minutes
  • Tune: 20 minutes

Find all play-along tracks for intervals here: Interval Central


One Tune, One Scale, Ten Minutes

  • Play a scale for five minutes
  • Play a tune using that scale for five minutes
  • As a variation, just alternate between a tune and its scale for ten minutes

10-minute tuning routine

  • Practice individual notes with a drone: 5 minutes
    • So to practice D1, use an E drone. To practice, D2 use an F sharp drone
    • If you're unsure what note you're playing, then use the Notefinder (found in another tab with this Practice Tools section)
  • Practice intervals with a drone: 5 minutes

    • Pick a focus note to use as the drone
    • So if you are practicing D3-A0, play along with a G drone (for D3); this will help you tune that note

20-minute review routines

  • Single-drone routine
    • Review tunes that share the same drone note. So tunes in D Major, D Dorian or D Klezmer can all be practiced with a D drone.
    • Use the Tunes Listed By Root Note page as your guide.
    • Play the relevant scale before each tune you review.
    • This is a fun and refreshing way to review tunes.
  • Last 5-10 ten tunes
    • A simpler routine is to just review the last 5-10 tunes you've learned in a twenty-minute session.
    • Play the relevant scale before each tune you review.

Experiment combining or alternating routines.

Click here for more practice routines

  • You are a musician if you PLAY EVERY DAY
    • Find a consistent time and place to practice. Make it a habit, like brushing your teeth; that way you spend no energy in deciding to practice or not.
    • Learn more: How To Practice Consistently
  • Listening is practice too.
  • Slow down.
    • This is cliché music teacher advice, but it's what most students need to do.
    • Learn more: Slow Down To Speed Up
  • Sing what you play.
    • Singing or humming (if you're shy) will help you to play in tune as well as remember melodies.
    • It can also be a lot of fun to alternate between singing and playing a phrase to song.
    • Learn more: Singing and Playing Practice
  • Practice audiation.
    • Audiation is hearing music in your head. Actively practice this.
    • Learn more: Audiation
  • Loop it.
    • Whatever level you're at, you can benefit from looping small bits and phrases.
    • Not only will it help your technique, but it will unlock your creativity and bring you joy.
    • Learn more: Looping Practice
  • Micro-learning.
    • Learn in very small increments.
    • Single notes > bits > phrases > tunes
    • Learn more: Micro-learning
  • Drone on.
  • Be your own teacher.
    • Make up your own exercises.
    • Record yourself and listen back. This way you can pinpoint what's most challenging.
    • Learn more: Be Your Own Teacher
  • Remember to sound good.
    • Always return to a good sound, even if it means playing quarter notes on the D string. You can do this! You just have to remember to pause on practicing the challenging thing and just get a good sound on single notes.
    • Why do this? Because it will bring you deep joy. And it will build your confidence which will inspire further practice.
    • Learn more: Remember to Sound Good
  • Practice Just To Practice
    • Don't fixate on being great or perfect. Good is better than perfect.
    • The moment you pick up the fiddle and play you have "made it".
    • Learn more: Practice Just To Practice

Here are a few technical reminders to remember as you practice.

Posture reminders

  • Curve left-hand and right-hand fingers.
  • Bend right thumb.
  • Bend right arm and wrist.
  • Use minimal energy.
  • Left-hand fingers land on tips, not pads. This makes for more precise playing.

Bowing tips

  • Take time to focus on bowing during each practice session.
    • Get the best possible sound on single notes using long bows, throwaway bow, rhythms. Even just a few minutes of this will drastically improve your sound.
  • Use less bow.
    • This is a rule of thumb for fiddle tunes, especially for when things are difficult.
    • Continue to practice long bows. This will improve your overall sound.
  • Play in the middle of the bow. This is the sweet spot.
  • Use no extra energy or force for double stops.
    • It's more a matter of getting the bow perfectly balanced between the two strings.
    • Again, playing with less bow will help with this.

Left-hand fingering tips

  • Keep fingers down when possible.
    • For example, if you are rapidly playing D1-2, it is easier if you keep D1 down while fingering D2.
    • Practice this on scales.
  • Practice Little Lift
    • Don't lift left-hand fingers too high. Let them just hover above the string.
    • This allows you to play faster, better in tune and with more ease.
    • Practice: two-note intervals (like D1-2), scales, tune phrases, whole tunes.
      • Keep your awareness on Little Lift as you practice more complex things.
    • Take a lesson on Little Lift.
  • Practice challenging intervals
    • Your fingers need a lot more time with things than your brain (which gets bored more easily).
    • Find the most challenging interval from a tune, like D3-A1 in Oh Susannah, and practice that until you can play it with ease and joy.
    • Use the exercises from Interval Central to go deeper with this.

Check in with the body

  • Is it relaxed or tense? Are you breathing evenly?
  • If you notice you are tense and not breathing evenly, simply pause on what you're currently practicing and play a single note. Make it sound nice. See if your body is more relaxed now.
  • If you can play a single note with a relaxed body, then try more complex things: 2-note intervals, scales, simple tune phrases, whole tunes.
  • Keep returning to single notes as a way to center yourself, relax and enjoy the process.

Little pauses

  • If you find that sound is sloppy, try adding a little pause in between the notes. This gives your fingers time to find the next note. This is especially helpful with string crossing.
  • Take a short lesson: A Little Pause
  • Practice the "Stop n' Rock" exercises from String CrossingApply this idea to more complex string crossings.

Slow down

  • Students of all levels can do this to improve their fundamental technique.
  • Practice everything more slowly than you naturally would play it.
  • Also, slow down your consumption of new lessons, techniques and tunes. Stay with one thing until it really sinks in.

Take short breaks

  • It's easy to get caught up in practicing and not notice that the body is stiff and sore.
  • Take short breaks to move, stretch and breathe.

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